Consumer price index (CPI)

Turinys

  1. Contact
  2. Metadata update
  3. Statistical presentation
  4. Measurement unit(s)

  5. Reference period
  6. Institutional mandate
  7. Confidentiality
  8. Release policy
  9. Frequency of dissemination
  10. Accessibility and clarity
  11. Methodological documentation

  12. Quality management
  13. Relevance
  14. Accuracy and reliability
  15. Timeliness and punctuality
  16. Coherence and comparability
  17. Coherence
  18. Response burden

  19. Data revision

  20. Statistical processing
  21. Comments and other information


1 Contact
1.1 Contact organisation

Statistics Lithuania

1.2 Contact organisation unit

Price Statistics Division

1.3 Contact name

Dalia Skirelienė

1.4 Contact person function

Chief Specialist

1.5 Contact mail address

29 Gedimino Ave., LT-01500 Vilnius, Lithuania

1.6 Contact email address

dalia.skireliene@stat.gov.lt

1.7 Contact phone number

+370 5 236 4741

1.8 Contact fax number

+370 5 236 4791

2 Metadata update
2.1 Metadata last certified

2019-02-13

2.2 Metadata last posted 2019-11-11
2.3 Metadata last update 2019-11-08
3 Statistical presentation
3.1

Description of statistical information (main characteristics, purpose)

The objective of the statistical survey on prices of consumer goods and services is to collect statistical data and provide for users statistical information on prices of representative consumer goods and services and to calculate the CPI of different periods on the basis of such statistical data.

The objective of the production of the CPI – to determine the average change in the price level for consumer goods and services purchased and paid for and used by households to satisfy their needs over a certain time period. The CPI is used to measure the inflation rate in the country and estimate the country’s macroeconomic indicators at constant prices, for analytical and forecasting purposes. It is the main instrument of indexation.

3.2

Classifications(s), classification system

Classification of Individual Consumption by Purpose (COICOP 1999)

3.3 Sector coverage

All households residing in the country, except for non-residents; consumer goods and services purchased by households.

3.4 Statistical concepts and definitions

Consumer price index (CPI) is a relative indicator reflecting the overall change in prices for consumer goods and services purchased by households to their consumption needs over a certain period of time. It is the main indicator of consumer price inflation. The CPI can be understood as an indicator showing the amount the average consumer would have to spend in a given year to buy the same basic goods and services for which one would have to pay 100 monetary units in the reference period.

Index reference period is the reference period with the index equated to 100 index points. Having the time series of price indices, calculated with a single index reference period, it is possible to determine the price indices for different periods.

Price reference period –  period based on the price level in which the overall change in prices is measured.

Weight reference period –  period the data of which are used for calculating index weights.

Weight is the comparative part of household consumption expenditure expressed as a percentage or ppm for the acquisition of goods and services classified under a certain elementary aggregate of the CPI. The higher the weight, the stronger the effect of the change in prices of goods and services of a certain classification level on the change in prices of goods and services of the higher classification level.

3.5 Statistical unit

Trade and service enterprises or local units; consumer goods and services.

3.6 Statistical population

The target population of enterprises and local units is comprised of trade and service enterprises and local units of all forms of ownership, types and sizes. In 2019, about 4 300 trade and service enterprises and local units were selected for the statistical survey on prices for consumer goods and services.

The target population of goods and services covers goods and services purchased by household within the economic territory of the country. In 2019, target sample is comprised of 941 represantative consumer goods and services.

The target population of households covers all households residing in the country, except for non-residents. The household sector includes all individuals or groups of individuals irrespective of, in particular, the type of area in which they live, their position in income distribution, nationality or citizenship.

3.7 Reference area

The CPI covers the entire geographical territory of the country, represented by 18 territorial units (10 counties and 8 regional centres), selected for the price survey. Prices are collected in small, medium towns and five major cities with the population from 5 500 (small towns) to 540 000 (cities). Prices for food products, non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages and tobacco are additionally collected in 10 villages.

3.8 Time coverage

The all-items CPI time series is available from December 1990, the time series of price sub-indices for COICOP divisions, groups and classes – since May 1992.

3.9 Base period

2015

4

Measurement unit(s)

Index;

Rates of change in prices, weights – in per cent;

Prices – EUR.

5 Reference period

Month

6 Institutional mandate
6.1 Legal acts and other agreements

Law on the Ratification of the Conventions of the International Labour Organization of the Republic of Lithuania. (only Lithuanian)

6.2

Data sharing and exchange

7 Confidentiality
7.1

Confidentiality policy

In the process of statistical data collection, processing and analysis and dissemination of statistical information, Statistics Lithuania fully guarantees the confidentiality of the data submitted by respondents (households, enterprises, institutions, organisations and other statistical units), as defined in the Confidentiality Policy Guidelines of Statistics Lithuania.

7.2 Confidentiality - data treatment

Description of Statistical Disclosure Control Methods, approved by Order No DĮ-124 of 27 May 2008 of the Director General of Statistics Lithuania.

Integrated Statistical Information System Data Security Regulations and Rules for the Secure Management of Electronic Information in the Integrated Statistical Information System, approved by Order No DĮ-42 of 20 February 2015 of the Director General of Statistics Lithuania (only in Lithuanian).

8 Release policy
8.1 Release calendar

Statistical information is published in accordance with an Official Statistics Calendar.

8.2

Link to the release calendar

Official Statistics Calendar

8.3

Release procedure

Statistical information is published on the Official Statistics Portal according to an Official Statistics Calendar, following the Official Statistics Dissemination Policy Guidelines and Statistical Information Preparation and Dissemination Rules.

9 Frequency of dissemination

Monthly

10 Accessibility and clarity
10.1 News release

A monthly news release about rates of changes in prices for consumer goods and services is disseminated each month, on the 6th working day after the end of the reference month. Statistical information is issued in the annual news release Alcohol and Tobacco Consumption and Consequences.

 

10.2

Publications

Annual publications Lithuania in Figures, Statistical Yearbook of Lithuania.

10.3

Databases

Database of Indicators (Economy and finance -> Price indices, changes and prices -> Consumer price index (CPI), price changes, index weights, average prices)

10.4

Access to micro data

Microdata are available and provided for scientific purposes according to the provisions set in the Description of Procedures for the Provision of Confidential Statistical Data for Scientific Purposes. More information is available on the Official Statistics Portal, at Data for scientific purposes.

Public data files: users are also provided with opportunity to access public files with statistical data on observation units. More information is available on the Official Statistics Portal, at Public data files.

10.5 Other

11

Methodological documentation

Price indices, changes and prices

12 Quality management
12.1 Quality assurance

The quality of statistical information and its production process is ensured by the provisions of the European Statistics Code of Practice and ESS Quality Assurance Framework

In 2007, a quality management system, conforming to the requirements of the international quality management system standard ISO 9001, was introduced at Statistics Lithuania. The main trends in activity of Statistics Lithuania aimed at quality management and continuous development in the institution are established in the Quality Policy. Monitoring of the quality indicators of statistical processes and their results and self-evaluation of statistical survey managers is regularly carried out in order to identify the areas which need improvement and to promptly eliminate the shortcomings.

12.2 Quality assessment

The quality of the data corresponds to the requirements of accuracy, timeliness and punctuality, comparability and compatibility.

In 2002, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) examined the compliance of the CPI with the IMF Special Data Dissemination Standards and evaluated it as compliant.

In 2006, Eurostat verified the compliance of the Lithuanian HICP with EU legislation requirements and evaluated it as compliant.

In March 2013, the compliance of the Lithuanian HICP with the EU requirements was checked by Eurostat, the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs and the European Central Bank. During the assessment of compliance it was verified that Lithuanian HICP meets the EU requirements, the quality of consumer price statistics was improved (see the compliance reports).

Self-assessment of statistical survey managers is performed periodically, which shows the quality of the indicator; statistical questionnaires used to collect statistical data are tested.

13 Relevance
13.1 User needs

The main users of statistical information are state institutions, international organisations, the media, business and research communities, students, whose needs are satisfied without a breach of the confidentiality principle. The CPI is used to recalculate indicators at constant prices, for analytical, planning, forecasting, market research, indexation purposes.

13.2 User satisfaction

From 2005, user opinion surveys have been conducted on a regular basis. Official Statistics Portal traffic is monitored, website visitor opinion polls, general opinion poll on the products and services of Statistics Lithuania, target user group opinion polls and other surveys are conducted. In 2007, the compilation of a user satisfaction index was launched. The said surveys are aimed at the assessment of the overall demand for and necessity of statistical information in general and specific statistical indicators in particular.

For more information on user surveys and their results, see section User surveys on the Statistics Lithuania website.

13.3

Completness of statistical information

Price indices with the index base period and rates of change in prices for consumer goods and services are published by all COICOP classification categories and special aggregates at the national level.

In five major cities of the country, the rates of change in prices are published at the COICOP division level, actual average retail prices of some consumer goods and services.

13.3.1

Data completeness - rate

100 per cent of information produced in accordance with the Official Statistics Programme Part I is published.

14 Accuracy and reliability
14.1 Overall accuracy

The accuracy of data sources is monitored by assessing the methodological soundness of price and weight data sources according to the general system for the measurement and monitoring of statistical survey quality in place at Statistics Lithuania.

The main non-sampling errors occur due to incorrect recording, entry of prices, selection of a measurement unit, mismatch of the selected product or service type to the description of the representative commodity or service.

Household propensity for hiding certain expenditure, e.g. on alcoholic beverages and tobacco products, refusal of some households to participate in the household budget survey (HBS) affects the accuracy of the HBS data used for the preparation of weights.

Efforts are made to reduce the number of registration and entry errors through installing checking functions in the mobile devices used for price registration, improving the primary data verification programs, visiting territorial units to carry out follow-up checks of reported prices in enterprises and local units.

14.2

Sampling error

14.3

Non-sampling error

Non-sampling CPI errors are not calculated. Efforts are made to reduce non-sampling errors by continuously improving the methods applied and statistical survey processes (e.g. the use of mobile devices to collect prices, which helps to avoid coding and entry errors, verification of the correctness of the statistical data transmitted).

14.3.1

Non-response error

14.3.1.1

Unit non-response rate

14.3.1.2

Item non-response rate

Every month some prices are not recorded due to seasonality and for other reasons, such as supply interruptions, termination of activity of trade or service enterprises and local units or termination of production or import of a product. Missing prices are estimated using appropriate methods.

In the out-of-season period, prices of seasonal products are estimated using two methods: counter-seasonal estimation and all-seasonal estimation. According to the EU recommendations, these methods can be applied by estimating prices of seasonal products or price indices. In Lithuanian CPI, prices of seasonal products are estimated.

The prices of those goods and services whose prices were not recorded for other reasons are estimated using the following methods:

– the price of the previous month may be repeated if the price of the same product in other enterprises or local units has not changed or has changed very inconsiderably. However, the price may be repeated only for two months; afterwards, a new product must be selected to replace the product that is no longer available;

– in an enterprise or local unit, a missing price may be estimated using a short-term price ratio of the same product computed on the basis of the prices recorded in other enterprises or local units or territorial units, i.e. the price of the previous month is multiplied by a short-term price ratio;

– the missing price may be estimated on the basis of a short-term price ratio of a similar product or product group, i.e. the price of the previous month is multiplied by a short-term price ratio of a similar product or a short-term price ratio of a higher level.

2019, months

1 2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Not registered (prices were estimated)

7.8

7.5

8.3

6.8

7.4

7.0

8.0

8.3

7.8

6.4

 

of which

due to withdrawal of seasonal products from the market

4.0

4.1

5.0

3.2

3.4

3.0

3.4

4.1

4.3

2.8

 

 

for other reasons

3.8

3.4

3.3

3.6

4.0

4.0

4.6

4.2

3.5

3.6

 

 

15 Timeliness and punctuality
15.1

Timeliness

Statistical information about changes in prices for consumer goods and services is published on the sixth working day after the end of the reference month.

15.2

Punctuality

Statistical information is published in accordance with an Official Statistics Calendar. In case of delay, users are notified in advance by indicating the reason and a new date of publication.

15.2.1

Percentage of statistical information released on time

100 per cent

16 Coherence and comparability
16.1

Geographical comparability

Statistical information is not fully comparable with other countries. In order to have an indicator comparable between the EU Member States, consumer price index methodologically harmonised with other EU Member States (HICP) – is calculated.

16.2

Comparability over time

CPI data are fully comparable over time. However, the application of new HICP-related methods and rules could have affected the comparability of the CPI over time. CPI time series were not recalculated due to application of new rules and methods.

16.2.1

Length of comparable time series

All-items CPI – from December 1990, price sub-indices of COICOP divisions, groups and classes – from May 1992.

17 Coherence
17.1

Cross-domain coherence

Main differences between the CPI and the HICP:

Purpose. The CPI is used to measure the inflation rate in the country. This is the main instrument of indexation. The HICP is used for the measurement of inflation in the EU and international comparisons, as well as for the compilation of the European index of consumer prices and Monetary Union index of consumer prices, and European Economic Area index of consumer prices. The country’s compliance with the price stability criterion referred to in Article 140 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union is assessed taking into consideration the HICP-based inflation rate.

Coverage. The CPI covers only the consumption expenditure of the residents of the country within the economic territory of the country. In addition to the monetary consumption expenditure of the residents of the country, the HICP covers the expenditure of non-residents and those of foreign visitors within the economic territory of the country. The HICP does not cover household expenditure on games of chance, while the CPI does cover it.

Weights. Due to the different coverage of consumption expenditure, the weightings systems used for the calculation of the CPI and the HICP differ. This is the main factor causing differences in the value of indices.

Classifications. The CPI is compiled on the basis of the COICOP 1999. The ECOICOP classification is used to compile the HICP.

17.2

Internal coherence

The CPI is internally coherent. Lower-level price indices are aggregated to higher-level indices using the monetary consumption expenditure structure as weights.

18

Response burden

In 2018, one respondent spent, on average, 45 minutes on the filling in of the statistical questionnaire KA-05 (monthly)

19

Data revision

19.1

Revision policy

Statistics Lithuania’s revision policy is provided in the document General Principles behind the Performance, Analysis and Announcement of Revisions of Statistical Indicators.

19.2

Revision practice

The CPI is published as final and is not revised. Exception – when errors having an impact on the all-items CPI are detected.

19.2.1

Average of the change obtained during the revision

20 Statistical processing
20.1

Statistical data source

The main statistical data source for the production of the CPI is a monthly statistical survey on prices for consumer goods and services. Information published in the legal acts of state institutions, catalogues, pricelists, on the websites of enterprises is also used as a statistical data source.

The main data source for the preparation of a comparative weighting system is statistical data on household monetary expenditure for the acquisition of consumer goods and services obtained from a household budget survey. Other statistical data sources are also used for the preparation of the comparative weighting system: non-observed household expenditure is assessed using statistical information derived from domestic trade, transport and services, tourism, energy, social statistics and that provided by other institutions; the weights of elementary aggregates are detailed on the basis of statistical information on industry, domestic and foreign trade, transport and service statistics, as well as that of other institutions and enterprises.

20.2

Periodicity of statistical data collection

Monthly

20.3

Statistical data collection

Most prices of consumer goods and services are recorded by price collectors (97 per cent of all price quotations collected) visiting trade and service enterprises and local units selected for the price survey. Prices of some goods and services are collected by phone. Prices of actual rentals, electricity, natural gas, information processing equipment, cars, technical inspection of vehicles, railway and air transport, sanatorium, post, telecommunications, package holidays, financial, some educational, notary and certain other services are collected by the specialists of the Price Statistics Division of Statistics Lithuania (3 per cent of all the price quotations collected) on the basis of the relevant legislation, pricelists and information published on the websites of enterprises. Prices of cold water, heat energy, rent of apartments within the municipal stock of dwellings, refuse and sewerage collection, elevator operation, local road transport, certain educational and social services are collected by price collectors on the basis of the legal acts of local authorities. Prices for insurance services are collected through a monthly electronic statistical questionnaire KA-05, prices for rent from real estate agencies – using quarterly electronic statistical questionnaire KA-12.

The collection of primary statistical data on retail prices of all goods and services is launched on the first working day of each reporting month. Prices of goods and services are recorded on the 1st–20st day of each reporting month (the main price collection takes 13 working days); prices of seasonal food products and fuels are additionally recorded on the 21nd–30th day (the price collection takes 3 working days).

20.4

Statistical data validation

Price collectors carry out the verification of the data received. While entering price data into handheld computers, they verify the data and correct the errors found.

The Price Statistics Division carries out the logical verification and editing as well as validation of data relevance for further calculations. Data are compared to the data of previous months; comments and explanations provided by price collectors, changes in technical and qualitative characteristics of goods are analysed. Secondary data editing is carried out using a statistical price data verification computer program.

The specialists of the Price Statistics Division visit the enterprises and local units in the territorial units sampled – to carry out follow-up checks of the prices reported by price collectors.

The consumer price trends obtained are compared against producer price trends. Information about the factors having influence on price changes is regularly monitored in the press and in the reviews and reports published by other institutions.

20.5 Data compilation

Elementary price indices of the lowest level are computed in two stages. At the first stage, calculations are made to derive the ratio of arithmetic averages of retail prices for each representative product of each territorial unit. The short-term price ratio obtained is multiplied by the long-term price ratio for the representative product in the previous month. Thus, a long-term price ratio for the representative product in the reporting period in the specific territorial unit is obtained.

At the second stage, each territorial unit in which prices are surveyed is attributed a certain area of the country. A specific weight of the population of each area in the total population of the country is determined. Using the specific weights of the population, a weighted arithmetic average of long-term price ratios in 18 territorial units, i.e. an individual price index at the national level, is calculated for each representative product.

Individual price indices of representative products are aggregated to higher-level price indices and the country’s all-items CPI according to the modified Laspeyres formula using reference weights. Product price indices are aggregated into the price indices of classes, groups and divisions of the COICOP. CONSUMER PRICE INDEX COMPILATION METHODOLOGY.

20.6 Adjustment

Primary price data are adjusted for quality changes. In case of failing to collect prices, a replacement product is selected, which is similar to the description of the replaced product. If the quality of the replacement product significantly differs from that of the replaced one, the assessment of the impact of the change in quality on the increase or decrease in the price has to be made, and the price is recalculated. To maintain comparability between the price of the replaced and replacing product, the price of the replaced product in the previous month is adjusted by eliminating the impact of the change in quality. In order to reduce the number of items adjusted in terms of quality, products are grouped into product segments taking into account the purpose of use. Brand strata are broken down by quality, visibility, price level. Quality adjustment may be done by several methods: expert judgment, option pricing, bridged overlap, quantity adjustment, hedonic. Minor changes in quality are disregarded.

21

Comments and other information

Dissemination Standards Bulletin Board (DSBB) of the International Monetary Fund